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Moment of truth
The fastest man-made object that ever leave the Earth is the Pinoeer 10 spacecraft, launched in 1972, and attained a speed of more than 32000 mph.


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cytology Biol.
The study of the structure and functions of cells.

cytolysis Biol.
See lysis.

cytoplasm Biol.
The contents of a biological cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane (plasma membrane). In eukaryotic cells (such as animal cells), the cytoplasm consists of organelles and cytosol and, depending on cell types, other inclusions such as stored nutrients, secretory products and pigment granules. Diagram below shows a representation of a typical animal cell.

illustration of an animal cell

cytoplasmic matrix Biol.
See cytosol.

cytosol Biol.
A translucent gel-like liquid found inside biological cells. In eukaryotes the liquid is enclosed by plasma membrane and is separated from liquids in the organelles by cell membranes (see cell diagram above). Cytosol makes up of about 70% of the cell volume and is composed of mainly water, salts (K+, Na+, etc) and some macromolecules such as protein enzymes. Cytosol is also known as cytoplasmic matrix or intracellular fluid.

cytotoxin Biol.
A general term refers to poisonous substance (toxin) having a harmful or destructive effect on cells. An example of a cytotoxin such as nephrotoxin, which is a toxic substance that causes harmful effects on cells and/or tissues of the kidneys.

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