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Moment of truth
The fastest man-made object that ever leave the Earth is the Pinoeer 10 spacecraft, launched in 1972, and attained a speed of more than 32000 mph.

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in situ Chem., Med.
Derived from Latin, meaning confined to the place of origin. In chemistry it means production of a chemical species within the reaction mixture. In medicine, it means a cancer that is confined to the point of origin and has not spread.

in vitro Biol.
A technique of performing an experiment in a laboratory, controlled environment that is outside a living organisms or cells. The results may not always correspond to the real biological system. Ther term is derived from Greek, meaning in the glass.

incandesence Chem.
Emitting brilliant visible light as the temperature of a substance is raised. For instance, burning of magnesium metal in air, emitting brilliant white light.

indefinite integral Math.
If F(x) and g(x) are two functions of x, then F(x) is said to be an indefinite integral of g(x) if F(x) exists:

indefinite integral

The function g(x) is called an integrand, is said to be integrable. Usually an arbitrary constant, c, is included with the indefinite integral when integrating the above equation, that is, F(x) + c.

inert gas Chem.
One of the element that is grouped at the extreme right of the periodic table of the elements (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon). They have a complete outer (valence) electrons and thus unreactive (inert) to most of the chemical reactions. However, heavier elements such as xenon forms a few unstable compound, especially with fluorine. Inert gases are also known as rare gases or noble gases.

inflation theory Astron.
A theoretical concept of the origin of universe. See cosmic inflation.

inflaton field Phys.
A hypothetical scalar field (that associates with a scalar value to every point in a space) that is thought to be the source of energy that responsible in cosmic inflation during the early stage of the universe creation. It was suggested that the inflaton field was inherently unstable that result in rapid expansion as it decayed in about 10-32 s. The resulting energy released is so high that it heats up the universe that field particles such as photons and gluons and subsequently electrons and protons were created according to the Einstein's formula E=mc2.

It is thought that the energy released by the field heated the universe up to a thousand trillion trillion degrees which was more than enough to create 1050 tonnes of matter that is estimated to exist in the whole observable universe.

infrared Phys.
Region of the electromagnetic spectrum located just outside visible light, corresponding to a light of a slightly longer wavelength than red light, in a range of 10-7m to 10-5m. Our body gives out heat in the form of infrared radiation which cannot be detected with our eyes but can be detected with a suitable equipment such as night goggles.

Invar Eng.
A tradename for a nickel-steel alloy of iron (63-64%), nickel (36%) and with other substances in trace quantities such as cobalt, carbon and manganese. It has a very low expansion over a restricted temperature range and is used in watches and other instruments to reduce their sensitivity to changes in temperature. It was invented in 1896 by Swiss-French scientist C.. Guillaume (1861-1938).

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