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Moment of truth
More than 25 million people died in Europe from the bubonic plague (the black death) in five years, from 1347 to 1352.

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Kohlrausch's law Chem.
A solution conductivity law devised by the German chemist Friedrich Kohlrausch (1840-1910), which states that the conductivity of a dilute solution is the sum of independent values: the molar conductivity of the cations and the molar conductivity of the anion. The law is based on the independent migration of ions and the equation is written as:

Kohlrausch's law

where n is the number of ions and L is the molar conductivity.

Kovar alloy Eng.
A tradename for an alloy of iron, nickel (29%) and cobalt (17%) with traces of other metals such as manganese and has a melting point of around 1400C. It has a low thermal expansion, similar to glass and therefore found applications in making glass to metal hermatic seals, such as power tubes, microwave tubes, transistors, and diodes.

Kraft process Paper
The word kraft was derived from German, meaning strong. It is a chemical method for the production of wood pulp for paper making. Developed by C. F. Dahl, a German chemist, in 1879, the basic process involves cooking of wood pulp in a solution of sodium hydroxide (lye) and sodium sulfide for several hours in order to remove lignin from the pulp.

Kroll process Chem.
An industrial process for producing certain metals, especially titanium, by reducing the chloride with magnesium or sodium under an inert atmosphere such as argon. For instance, the titanium ore, rutile is at first chlorinated to give titanium(IV) chloride and then reduced by magnesium to give the titanium metal.

Kroll process

The process is also used to extract zirconium. The process was developed by Wilhelm J. Kroll (1889-1973) at Luxemburg in 1930s.

Kronecker delta Math.
Abbreviated as dij where i and j are two functions such that dij = 1 if i = j and dij = 0 if i is not equal to j.

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