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Moment of truth
The Sun, with a diameter of 1,392,000 km, is made of 94% hydrogen atoms.


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oil sand Geol.
Sandstones or grains of sand that are surrounded with hydrocarbon such as petroleum or bitumen. Can be found both at the shallow surfaces and underground, of which the largest deposits occur in Alberta, Canada, covering an area of 77,000 km2. It is also found in Venezuela, Albania and Romania. Recovery of crude oil from oil sand is a more difficult process than the conventional oil well extractions. Oil sands require extra recovery processes such as extraction and separation of petroleum from the sand and other mineral matters and water.

oil shale Geol., Chem.
A fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains kerogen, a waxy organic substance which decomposes to yield oil when heated. High grade oil shale that contains more than 10% kerogen can be burning directly withour processing. However, extraction of oil from oil shale is generally considered uneconomic unless price of oil rises above the recovery costs of oil from oil shale. The recovery usually involves pyrolysis or thermal dissolution, converting kerogen into shale oil, which needs to be further refined for refinery feedstock by adding hydrogen and removing sulfur and nitrogen impurities.

Deposits of oil shale occur around the world with major deposits in the United States of America. Estimates of global deposits are 3 trillion barrel of recoverable oil, which is more than the conventional petroleum reserves estimate.

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