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Moment of truth
The word 'nanotechnology' is first coined by University of Tokyo researcher Norio Taniguchi back in 1974.

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Torino hazard scale Space
Measure the risk of asteroid impacts on Earth. Adopted in June 1999, it is named after the city in Italy. Classification of asteroid threats are based on many complicated factors, including the asteroid's path and projection of future path that might change as a result of gravity effects from other nearby bodies. A zero rating (white) indicates the asteroid poses no possible threat to Earth, while red zone (8 to 10 ratings) indicate certain collisions.

torr Met.
A non-SI unit of pressure. It is equal to the atmospheric pressure that supports a column of mercury barometer of 1 millimeter high. Hence, 1 torr = 1mmHg. The unit is named after Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647), an Italian physicist and mathematician. Since by standard definition, a standard atmospheric pressure is equal to 101325 N/m2 (or Pa) and raise the mercury column to 760 mmHg. Therefor 1 torr = 101325/760 = 133.3223684 Pa.

transgenic Biol.
Introduction of foreign gene into genome in order to alter the biological or physical characteristics of an organism. Transgenic can be carried out by stem cell transformation by growing in tissue culture with the desire DNA or direct injecting of the foreign gene into the pronucleus of an egg.

transposed matrix Math.
A matrix with the rows and columns of the elements interchanged. For example, if A is a (3 x 2) matrix given by

Its corresponding transposed matrix is defined as

transposed matrix

That is, the (3 x 2) matrix is transposed to become a (2 x 3) matrix.

transuranic elements Chem.
Elements appear after uranium in the Periodic Table of the Elements with the atomic number greater than 92. These elements are only synthesized in nuclear reactor except neptunium and plutonium which are found in small quantities in nature.

tribology Phys., Eng.
The study of two surface contacts and in relative motion such as friction, lubrication and wear.

triple point Phys., Chem.
The temperature and pressure at which the vapour, liquid and solid phases of a substance are in equilibrium. For water, this occurs at 273.16 K and 611.2 Pa of pressure. This temperature forms the basis of the definition of the kelvin and the thermodynamic temperature scale.

tritium Chem.
An isotope of the element hydrogen. It has a symbol T of 1H3 with mass number 3, which consists of one proton and two neutrons at the atomic nucleus. Tritium is radioactive and has a half-life of 12.3 years, undergoing beta decay to helium-3. It is used as a tracer or labeling in chemical and biochemical research. It is also used in making hydrogen bombs which involve nuclear fusion reaction with deuterium.

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